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心迷失了·方向就分不清吃了!!!

重視長難句分析能力 輕鬆攻克雅思閱讀攔路虎


[摘要]考生們很習慣地把閱讀中的理解障礙歸因於詞匯量不夠,但是如果對句子結構不熟練的話,一樣會存在閱讀困難,因為學生往往發現無法將每個詞的意思竄連成意思合理的句子。
一. 了解英語(精品課)裏的句子類型
英語句子的基本類型有簡單句、並列句和復合句。
簡單句:句子中隻有一套主謂結構的叫簡單句。
比如(劍橋5,Wilderness tourism operates throughout the year in fragile areas. )
這句話中隻有一套主謂結構,主語是wilderness toursim,謂語動詞是operates。
並列句:句子中有兩套或者兩套以上主謂結構,並且這些主謂結構之間屬於並列關係。
比如(劍橋7,The disastrous Hanshin earthquake in 1995 killed 6,400 people, toppled elevated highways, flattened office blocks and devastated the port area of Kobe. )
這句話中有4套主謂結構,分別是Hanshin earthquake killed, Hanshin earthquake toppled, Hanshin earthquake flattened and Hanshin earthquake devastated。因為這4個謂語動詞共用一個主語Hanshin earthquake,所以作者在寫這個句子的時候隻讓Hanshin earthquake出現一次。
復合句:其實也就是通常說的主從句結構。這樣的句子裏有兩套或兩套以上主謂結構,並且這些主謂結構之間屬於從屬關係。劍橋閱讀的閱讀中有太多這樣的例子。
比如(劍橋7,Japanese scholars have been mystified for ages about why these tall, slender buildings are so stable. )
這句話中有2套主謂結構,一個是主句中的Japanese scholars have been mystified, 另外一個是由why引導的賓語從句中的buildings are so stable. 賓語從句中的主謂結構從屬於主語,因為它是作為整個句子的賓語部分而存在。
二、了解讓句子變長的原因
相信很多學生對此有同感:閱讀文章裏的長句讀著讀著就迷失了,讀了結尾就不知道開頭在哪了。而寫作文時要秀一下長句卻往往心有意而力不足。接著我們就來看看是什麽讓英語句子變長了?真的總是如學生抱怨的那樣,太多從句了嗎?
比如:(劍橋7,Yet in 826, with only pegs and wedges to keep his wooden structure upright, the master builder Kobodaishi had no hesitation in sending his majestic Toji pagoda soaring fifty-five metres into the sky-nearly half as high as the Kasumigaseki skyscraper built some eleven centuries later.)
這個句子雖然看似很長,但其實是一個簡單句。主語是the master builder Kobodaishi,謂語和賓語是had no hesitation in doing sth, 所以主幹意思就是Kobodaishi建築大師毫不猶豫去做了某件事情。至於yet in 826這是一個時間狀語, with only pegs and wedges to keep his wooden structure upright 這也是with引導的一個伴隨狀語,nearly half as high as the Kasumigaseki skyscraper built some eleven centuries later這個補語,用來補充說明fifty-five metres into the sky究竟是有多高。由這個例子,我們可以得出一些附屬句子成分像狀語和補語會讓句子變長。
再來看一個句子,比如(劍橋5,Much attention has focused on erosion along major trails, but perhaps more important are the deforestation and impacts on water supplies arising from the need to provide tourists with cooked food and hot showers. )
這個句子裏有2套主謂結構,一個是attention has focused on, 另外一個是more important are deforestation and impacts 並且這2套主謂結構由but相連,屬於一個並列句。對剩下成分進行分析,我們發現,erosion後麵有個短語along major trails, 這個是用來修飾限定erosion的,即主要步道沿路的侵蝕,impacts on water supply後麵也有一個修飾成分arising from the need to provide tourists with cooked food and hot showers. 因為需要給遊客提供熟食和熱水澡而引發的對水供給造成的影響。
簡而言之,講到長句,學生們不需要直接把它們與從句等同起來。句子變長,還有一部分原因是因為句子中嵌入了很多附屬成分比如說狀語,定語和補語。我們可以利用這個規律,在讀長句時有意識地先把這些附屬成分先略去不看,先把主幹(即主謂)找出來,那我們對句子的理解肯定也能做到八九不離十了。
三、了解一些不常見的句子結構
一些有著特殊結構的句子也成了閱讀中的攔路虎。
1. 強調句
比如:(劍橋7,It was only thirty years ago that the building industry felt confident enough to erect office blocks of steel and reinforced concrete that had more than a dozen floors.)
理解強調句的時候可以先將其還原成正常語序的句子,便於理解。The building industry felt confident enough to erect office blocks of steel and reinforced concrete that had more than a dozen floors only thirty years ago. 建築行業才開始有信心去建立辦公大樓,辦公大樓是鋼筋混凝土結構,辦公大樓超過12層,盡僅僅30年前。重新組合一下這些短句的順序,就變成建築行業是從30年前才開始有信心建造超過12層樓高的鋼筋混凝土結構的辦公大樓。
2. 倒裝句
比如:(Down came the “white only”notices in buses, hotels, trains, restaurants, sporting events, rest rooms and on park benches that once could be found everywhere throughout the South.)
這句話因為把down放句首了,用了倒裝的結構,正常順序應該是the “white only”notices came down in buses, hotels, trains, restaurants, sporting events, rest rooms and on park benches that once could be found everywhere throughout the South. ‘in buses, hotels, trains, restaurants, sporting events, rest rooms and on park benches’這個介詞短語作為後置定語修飾notices。介詞短語後麵還有一個that引導的定語從句修飾notices。對倒裝完成沒有概念的同學看到這句話後說不定還會覺得這個句子寫錯了。
3. the more..., the more... 句型, 翻譯成越...,越...
比如:(劍橋6,In fact, Newman believes the main reason for adopting one sort of transport over another is politics: ‘The more democratic the process, the more public transport is favored.’)
事實上,Newman認為采取偏向采用某種交通工具的主要原因是政治:“過程越民主,公共交通就越受歡迎。”)
4. 賓語+賓補
比如:(劍橋7,Food production has kept pace with soaring population mainly because of the expansion of artificial irrigation systems that make possible the growth of 40% of the world’s food.)
主幹是food production has kept pace with soaring population 糧食生產跟上了人口飆升的步伐,後麵跟了一個because of artificial irrigation短語作原因狀語,並且在irrigation systems後麵還跟了一個定語從句that make possible the growth of 40% of the world’s food 來修飾irrigation systems。在這個定語從句裏,make possible the growth of 40% of the world’s food這個就是賓語加賓語補足語的結構,the growth of 40% of the world’s food 是賓語,possible是補充說明賓語的結果,合起來就是make the growth of 40% of the world’s food possible。但是為了不讓隻有一個單詞possible作補語看起來太單薄,就將它和he growth of 40% of the world’s food換了位置。但是學生在讀句子的時候,應該要自動幫它們還原。
總結:
總的來說,考生們很習慣地把閱讀中的理解障礙歸因於詞匯量不夠,但是如果對句子結構不熟練的話,一樣會存在閱讀困難,因為學生往往發現無法將每個詞的意思竄連成意思合理的句子。本文嘗試將雅思(課程)長難句中經常出現的難點給學生作了一個總結,首先學生需要了解英語句子的基本句子結構,在分析長句時,把主謂結構都先找出來,分清楚哪些是主句主謂結構,哪些是從句主謂結構,了解從句的功能。其次,不要受一些附屬結構的影響,像是定語、狀語、補語,這些成分可以在分析完主謂結構後再加入進去理解。最後,要註意一些特殊句型暑期數學補習,特殊句型的數量並不多,平時的備考中不需要花很多時間就可以學習完。考生們在備考雅思閱讀時,應該要重視句子分析的能力,當這種能力變成一種習慣的時候,長句就不再會是閱讀攔路虎了。
原文地址:http://edu.qq.com/a/20170912/034640.htm